Anti-Money Laundering
Consulting Services & Strategies

0 Items - Total: $0.00 CAD

Real Estate Sector – Identifying Individuals

We often hear friends and clients in the real estate sector say they are frustrated that there are not many ways to identify a customer other than meeting them face-to-face. Real estate developers, brokers and sales representatives have an obligation to ascertain a customer’s identity which requires them to refer to specific information and/or documentation to verify a customer’s identity.  However, this does not mean that identification must take place face-to-face. Below is a summary of all the different methods outlined in FINTRAC Guidance that are currently available to identify customers that are individuals and what’s coming.[1]

This article should not be considered advice (legal or otherwise). Throughout this article we refer to a purchaser of real estate as a customer, but you may refer to them as clients depending on your internal procedures. Also, your internal procedures may dictate what methods are acceptable in identifying a customer. If you are unsure, consult with your Compliance Officer where there is any doubt on what is acceptable within your organization.

Face-to-Face Identification for Individuals

When meeting customers face-to-face you may ask for a piece of identification that is:

  • Issued by a provincial, territorial or federal government in Canada or an equivalent foreign government (a foreign Passport would be acceptable for example);
  • Valid, not expired (if there is not expiry date this must be stated in the customer identification record);
  • Bears a unique identifier number (such as a driver’s license number);
  • Bears the name of the individual being identified;
  • Is an original (not a copy, photo, scan, video call, etc.); and
  • Bears a photo of the individual being identified.

Information that must also be collected and recorded includes things such as the customer’s full name (no initials, short forms or abbreviations), their occupation, date of birth, etc. The needed information is included in various fields on industry customer identification forms that are used so it is crucial they are complete and accurate.

Single Process Method

Under the single process method, a customer’s identify can be confirmed by completing  a credit header match on their Canadian credit file, provided it has been in existence for at least three years and has at least two trade lines.  This means there is not a ‘hard hit’, impacting the customer’s credit score. This must be completed at the time of confirming a customer’s identity and cannot take place earlier or later.  To be acceptable, the credit file details must match the exact name, date of birth and address provided by the customer. When using this method to confirm a customer’s identity a record of the following information must be retained:

  • The customer’s name;
  • The name of the Canadian credit bureau holding the credit file;
  • The reference number of the credit file; and
  • The date the credit file was consulted.

Dual Process Method

Where the single process method provides information that does not match what the customer has provided and/or the credit file does not meet the requisite requirements, the dual process method can be used to identify that customer.  This involves referring to information from reliable and independent sources and must be original, valid and the most recent.  In order to qualify as reliable, the sources should be well-known and reputable. Reliable and independent sources can be the federal, provincial, territorial and municipal levels of government, crown corporations, financial entities or utility providers. It is important to note that independent means neither of the sources can be the same, nor can they be you or your business.

Documentation being used must be in its original form.  This makes electronic documents the preference because the customer can send the originals via email, while retaining a copy for themselves. You cannot accept documents that have been photocopied, scanned or faxed.

Under the dual process method, you can refer to any two of the following options:

  • Documents or information from a reliable source that contain the customer’s name and date of birth;
  • Documents or information from a reliable source that contain the customer’s name and address; or
  • Documents or information that contain the customer’s name and confirms that they have a deposit, credit card or other loan account with a financial entity.

The table below provides some examples of the sources and documents that can be referred to when confirming a customer’s identification.  In order to meet the standards of the dual process method, two documents must be obtained but each document cannot be in the same column.

 

Documents or information to verify name and address

 

 

Column A

Documents or information to verify name and date of birth

 

 

Column B

Documents or information to verify name and confirm a financial account

 

Column C

 

Issued by a Canadian government body:

Any card or statement issued by a Canadian government body (federal, provincial, territorial or municipal):

·      Canada Pension Plan (CPP) statement;

·      Property tax assessment issued by a municipality; or

·      Provincially-issued vehicle registration.

·      Federal, provincial, territorial, and municipal levels.

CRA documents:

·      Notice of assessment;

·      Requirement to pay notice;

·      Installment reminder / receipt;

·      GST refund letter; or

·      Benefits statement.

Issued by a Canadian government body:

Any card or statement issued by a Canadian government body (federal, provincial, territorial or municipal):

·      Canada Pension Plan (CPP) statement of contributions;

 

 

Issued by other Canadian sources:

·      Referring to a customer/customer’s Canadian credit file that has been in existence for at least 6 months; or

Insurance documents (home, auto, life);

Confirm that your customer/customer has a deposit account, credit card or loan account by means of:

·      Credit card statement;

·      Bank statement;

·      Loan account statement (for example: mortgage);

·      Cheque that has been processed by a financial institution;

·      Telephone call, email or letter from the financial entity holding the deposit account, credit card or loan account; or

·      Identification product from a Canadian credit bureau (containing two trade lines in existence for at least 6 months);

Issued by other Canadian sources:

·      Referring to the customer/customer ‘s Canadian credit file that has been in existence for at least 6 months;

·      Utility bill (for example, electricity, water, telecommunications);

·      T4 statement;

·      Record of Employment;

·      Investment account statements (for example, RRSP, GIC); or

·      Identification product from a Canadian credit bureau (containing two trade lines in existence for at least 6 months).

 

Where the dual process method is used to confirm the identity of a customer, a record of certain information must be maintained. Specifically:

  • The customer’s name;
  • The name of the two different sources that were used to identify the customer;
  • The type of information (for example, utility statement, bank statement, etc.) that was referred to;
  • The account number associated with the information for each source (if there is account number, you must record a reference number); and
  • The date the information was verified.

Third Parties (Agent or Mandatary)

If you are unable to use any of the methods above (say in the case of a foreign buyer that you cannot meet with face-to-face), you can ask someone in their area to identify them on your behalf.  There must be a written agreement or arrangement in place before using this method and procedures must be in place on how the third party will identify a buyer.

 

What’s To Come?

On June 9th, 2018, draft amendments to the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act (PCMLTFA) and its enacted regulations (there are five separate regulations that we’re going to collectively call regulations here for simplicity’s sake) were published. The draft amendments include some positive changes in respect to requirements related to identity verification.

With regards to the identification document used to identify a customer, the draft amendments replace the word “original” with “authentic” and state that a document used for verification of identity must be “authentic, valid and current.” This may[2] allow for scanned copies of documentation and/or for software that can authenticate identification documents to be used for the dual process method.

Under the draft amendments, regarding the single process method, information in a credit report must be derived from more than one source (this means there must be more than one trade line).

Under the draft amendments, real estate developers, brokers and sales representatives would be allowed to rely on identity verification undertaken by other regulated entities. This method requires a written agreement and a requirement to deliver the identity documentation within three days.

 

We’re Here To Help

If you have questions regarding the identification requirements in place currently or the requirements that are in draft form please contact us.

 

[1] Note that methods used to identify customers that are organizations are different from the ones discussed in this article.

[2] There is no certainty in this regard until a final version is published and FINTRAC has provided their guidance on the matter.

Proposed AML Amendments & Credit Unions

Jon 1Today’s guest blogger is Jonathan Krumins, Vice-President, AML Risk & Compliance, at vCAMLO Solutions Inc. vCAMLO provides anti-money laundering (AML) and counter terrorist financing (CTF) support to Canadian credit unions. You can learn more about vCAMLO at www.vcamlo.ca.

Background

On July 4, 2015, draft amendments to the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Regulations (PCMLTFR) were published in the Canada Gazette. These changes are not yet in force, and are open to public comment until September 4, 2015. The proposed changes are based on requirements set out by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), an inter-governmental body that sets out international standards for combating money laundering and terrorist financing. For this reason, we expect the final version of these amendments to be similar to the draft text.

2015 Proposed PCMLTFR Amendments and Credit Union Specific Analysis (Line By Line)

Why Do These Changes Matter to Credit Unions?

The proposed changes will have a direct impact on a Credit Union’s AML obligations, including record keeping, member identification and ongoing monitoring requirements. Some of the more significant changes include new member identification methods, expanded definitions (and requirements) for Politically Exposed Persons, and new record keeping requirements for “reasonable measures” taken.

New Member Identification Methods          

IdentificationThe draft regulations will require identification documents to contain a member’s name and photograph. This will exclude SIN cards and birth certificates as acceptable identification documents, and may pose an issue when identifying seniors whose passport or driver’s license has long since expired.

The amendments also provide a number of new identification methods that can be used to identify members both face-to-face and non-face to face. These new methods are an improvement on existing rules, which are currently more restrictive.

For example, a Canadian credit file meeting certain criteria could now be used to identify a member. Many credit unions perform credit checks as part of their account opening process, so this could be used in place of government-issued identification in certain circumstances, or would allow simple non-face to face identification.

Also added is the ability to rely on information from “a reliable source” (yet to be determined, but likely online databases and other web-based resources), and information confirming that an individual has a deposit account, credit card or other loan account with another credit union, bank or caisse populaire. A credit union will also be able to accept identification performed by another credit union.

Politically Exposed Persons

PEFP silhouette 1The proposed regulations have added new categories of Politically Exposed Persons (PEPs), as follows:

  • Close associates of Politically Exposed Foreign Persons (PEFPs)
  • Politically Exposed Domestic Persons (PEDPs), their family members and close associates
  • Heads of International Organizations (HIOs), their family members and close associates

Given that the list (contained in bill C-31) of qualifying positions for PEDPs includes mayors, it is likely that many if not most credit unions will have members classified as PEDPs. The draft regulations mitigate this somewhat by adding a prescribed period of 20 years to the definition of a PEDP.

Additionally, required measures for PEPs such as determining the source of funds, obtaining senior management authorization to keep an account open, and performing enhanced monitoring will only apply to PEDPs and HIOs (and their family members and close associates) who have been determined to be high risk. Despite these exceptions, identifying and documenting these new categories of PEP will add to credit unions’ compliance obligations.

Reasonable Measures

Many AML record keeping, reporting and determination requirements rely on “reasonable measures” to be taken by financial institutions. For example, in a Large Cash Transaction Report, certain information about the conductor of the transaction, such as their country of residence, their home and business telephone numbers are not mandatory, but reasonable efforts must be made to obtain the information, and if you have it on file, it must be included in the report. The proposed changes will mean that whenever you take “reasonable measures”, and the measures taken are unsuccessful, you will then need to keep a record describing what the measures were and the reason they were unsuccessful. This will require additional work and record keeping for categories such as FINTRAC reporting, PEP determinations and correspondent banking relationships, among others.

Public Comments

Public comments about the proposed changes will be accepted by the Ministry of Finance until September 4, 2015. They must be submitted in writing, as follows:

Mail       Attention: Lisa Pezzack

Director, Financial Systems Division

Department of Finance

90 Elgin Street

Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0G5

Email: fcs-scf@fin.gc.ca

Need a Hand?

If you would like someone to look over your submission before you make comments to the Department of Finance, you can get in touch with us free of charge. We will look over your submission and make suggestions, without any cost to you. If you need a hand, please feel free to contact vCAMLO or Outlier.

AML Regulation Updates & Digital Currency

Amber AML Program_2On July 4th, 2015, draft amendments to Canada’s Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Regulations were published in the Canada Gazette. These updates are intended to, among other things, strengthen Canada’s anti-money laundering (AML) regime and address certain technical issues. The draft does expand the definition of a money services business (MSB) to include “dealers in digital currency,” but digital currency businesses may still consider submitting comments related to the draft, as the consultation period of 60 days is open to the public.

This round of amendments didn’t include ‘dealers in digital currency’ – so why should you comment?

While dealers in digital currency are not yet regulated as MSBs, it is reasonable to expect that this is the direction Canada is taking based on Bill C-31, which was passed last year. This means that the regulations could apply to digital currency businesses in the near future. The 60-day comment period is likely to be the only public comment period before a final version of the amended regulations is published.

One of the most significant changes in the current draft relates to customer identification. The current customer identification methods for non-face-to-face customers (which apply to all online MSB customers) are complicated and heavily reliant on an individual having at least six months of Canadian credit history (you can learn more here). The proposed amendments have the potential to broaden the range of available sources to include sources other than credit reporting bureaus.

Digital currency businesses should consider commenting on these amendments. While we at Outlier consider the changes to be positive overall, we’re aware that there are many identification solutions on the market (many of which don’t meet the current Canadian identification requirements). This has caused more than a few headaches for businesses that operate online. While the proposed changes may alleviate some of the current pain points, businesses should consider how these fit with your business model and service providers.

Customer Identification Measures

In the text below, the text that is struck through includes proposed deletions, while the green text includes proposed additions. You can also see a full marked-up version of the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Regulations here.

MEASURES FOR ASCERTAINING IDENTITY

  1. (1) In the cases referred to in sections 53, 53.1, 54, paragraph 54.1(a) and sections 55, 56, 57, 59, 59.1, 59.2, 59.3, 59.4, 59.5, 60 and 61, a person’s the identity of a person shall is to be ascertained, at the time referred to in subsection (2) and in accordance with subsection (3), in the following manner:

(a) By referring to the person’s birth certificate, driver’s licence, provincial health insurance card (if such use of the card is not prohibited by the applicable provincial law), passport or other similar document; or

(a) By referring to identification document that contains their name and photograph and that is issued by the federal government or a provincial government or by a foreign government other than a municipal government, and by verifying that the name and photograph are those of the person;

(b) if the person is not physically present when the account is opened, the credit card application is submitted, the trust is established, the client information record is created or the transaction is conducted,

(i) by obtaining the person’s name, address and date of birth and

(A) confirming that one of the following entities has identified the person in accordance with paragraph (a), namely,

(I) an entity, referred to in any of paragraphs 5(a) to (g) of the Act, that is affiliated with the entity ascertaining the identity of the person,

(II) an entity that carries on activities outside Canada similar to the activities of a person or entity referred to in any of paragraphs 5(a) to (g) of the Act and that is affiliated with the entity ascertaining the identity of the person, or

(III) an entity that is subject to the Act and is a member of the same association as the entity ascertaining the identity of the person, and

(B) verifying that the name, address and date of birth in the record kept by that affiliated entity or that entity that is a member of the same association corresponds to the information provided in accordance with these Regulations by the person, or

(ii) subject to subsection (1.3), by using one of the following combinations of the identification methods set out in Part A of Schedule 7, namely,

(A) methods 1 and 3,

(B) methods 1 and 4,

(C) methods 1 and 5,

 (D) methods 2 and 3,

(E) methods 2 and 4,

 (F) methods 2 and 5,

(G) methods 3 and 4, or

(H) methods 3 and 5.

 (b) by referring to information concerning them that is received by the     person or entity that is ascertaining their identity on request from a federal or provincial government body — or a body that is acting as the agent or mandatary of such a body — that is authorized in Canada to ascertain the identity of persons, and by verifying that either the name and address or the name and date of birth contained in the information are those of the person;

(c) by referring to information that is contained in the person’s credit file — if that file is located in Canada and has been in existence for at least      three years — and by verifying that the name, address and date of birth   contained in the credit file are those of the person;

(d) by doing any two of the following:

(i) referring to information from a reliable source that contains their name and address, and verifying that the name and address are those of the person,

(ii) referring to information from a reliable source that contains their name and date of birth, and verifying that the name and date of birth are those of the person, or

(iii) referring to information that contains their name and confirms that they have a deposit account or a credit card or other loan account with a financial entity, and verifying that information; or

(e) by confirming that one of the following entities previously ascertained their identity in accordance with any of paragraphs (a) to (d), and by verifying that the name, address and date of birth contained in the entity’s record are those of the person:

(i) an entity that is referred to in any of paragraphs 5(a) to (g) of the Act and that is affiliated with the entity that is ascertaining the person’s identity, 

(ii) an entity that carries on activities outside Canada similar to the activities of a person or entity referred to in any of paragraphs 5(a) to (g) of the Act and that is affiliated with the entity that is ascertaining the person’s identity, or

(iii) a financial entity that is subject to the Act and that is a member of the same financial services cooperative or credit union central as the entity that is ascertaining the person’s identity.

(1.1) In the case referred to in paragraph 54.1(a), the identity of a person shall be ascertained by a person or entity, at the time referred to in subsection (2) and in accordance with subsection (3),

(a) by referring to the person’s birth certificate, driver’s licence, provincial health insurance card (if such use of the card is not prohibited by the applicable provincial law), passport or other similar document; or

(b) where the person is not physically present when the credit card application is submitted,

(i) by obtaining the person’s name, address and date of birth and

(A) confirming that one of the following entities has identified the person in accordance with paragraph (a), namely,

(I) an entity, referred to in any of paragraphs 5(a) to (g) of the Act, that is affiliated with the entity ascertaining the identity of the person,

(II) an entity that carries on activities outside Canada similar to the activities of a person or entity referred to in any of paragraphs 5(a) to(g) of the Act and that is affiliated with the entity ascertaining the identity of the person, or

(III) an entity that is subject to the Act and is a member of the same association as the entity ascertaining the identity of the person, and

(B) verifying that the name, address and date of birth in the record kept by that affiliated entity or that entity that is a member of the same association corresponds to the information provided in accordance with these Regulations by the person,

(ii) subject to subsection (1.3), by using a combination of any two identification methods referred to in either Part A or Part B of Schedule 7, or

(iii) subject to subsection (1.3), where the person has no credit history in Canada and the credit limit on the card is not more than $1,500, by using combination of any two identification methods referred to in any of Parts A, B and C of Schedule 7.

(1.1) For the purposes of subparagraphs (1)(d)(i) to (iii), the information that is referred to must be from different sources, and the person whose identity is being ascertained and the person or entity that is ascertaining their identity cannot be a source.

(1.2) for the purposes of paragraphs (1)(b)(i) and (1.1)(b)(i), an entity is affiliated with another entity if one of them is wholly owned by the other or both are wholly owned by the same entity.

(1.2) The person or entity that is ascertaining the identity of a person who is at least 12 years of age but not more than 15 years of age may refer under subparagraph (1)(d)(i) to information that contains the name and address of one of the person’s parents or their guardian or tutor in order to verify that the address is that of the person.

(1.21) For the purposes of subparagraphs (1)(b)(i) and (1.1)(b)(i),

(a) a financial services cooperative and each of its members that is a financial entity are considered to be members of the same association; and

(b) a credit union central and each of its members that is a financial entity are considered to be members of the same association.

(1.3) A combination of methods referred to in sub-paragraph (1)(b)(ii) or (1.1)(b)(ii) or (iii) shall not be relied on by a person or entity to ascertain the identity of a person unless

(a) the information obtained in respect of that person from each of the two applicable identification methods is determined by the person or entity to be consistent; and

(b) the information referred to in paragraph (a) is determined by the person or entity to be consistent with the information in respect of that person, if any, that is contained in a record kept by the person or entity under these Regulations.

(1.3) If a document is used to ascertain identity under subsection (1), it must be original, valid and current. Other information that is used for that purpose must be valid and current and must not include an electronic image of a document.

(2) The identity shall be ascertained

(a) in the cases referred to in paragraph 54(1)(a) and subsection 57(1), and paragraph 60(a), before any transaction other than an initial deposit is carried out on an account;

(b) in the cases referred to in section 53, paragraph 54(1)(b), subsection 59(1) and paragraphs 59.3(a), 59.4(1)(a), 59.5(a), 60(b) and 61(b), at the time of the transaction;

(b.1) in the case referred to in section 53.1, before the transaction is reported as required under section 7 of the Act;

(b.2) in the case referred to in paragraph 54.1 (a), before any credit card is activated;

(c) in the cases referred to in paragraphs 55(a), (d) and (e), within 15 days after the trust company becomes the trustee;

(d) in the cases referred to in subsection 56(1) and paragraph 61(a), within 30 days after the client information record is created;

(e) in the cases referred to in paragraphs 59.1(a) and 59.2(1)(a), at the time of the transaction; and

(e.1) in the case referred to in paragraph 60(a), before any funds are disbursed; and

(f) in the case referred to in subsection 62(3), at the time a contribution in respect of an individual member of the group plan is made to the plan, if

(i) the member’s contribution is not made as described in paragraph 62(3)(a), or

(ii) the existence of the plan sponsor has not been confirmed in accordance with section 65 or 66.

(3) Unless otherwise specified in these Regulations, only original documents that are valid and have not expired may be referred to for the purpose of ascertaining identity in accordance with paragraph (1)(a) or (1.1)(a).

64.1 (1) A person or entity that is required to take measures to ascertain a person’s identity under subsection 64(1) or (1.1) may rely on an agent or mandatary to take the identification those measures described in that subsection only if that person or entity has entered into an agreement or arrangement, in writing, with that agent or mandatary for the purposes of ascertaining identity.

(2) A person or entity that enters into an agreement or arrangement referred to in subsection (1) must obtain from the agent or mandatary the customer information obtained by the agent or mandatary under that agreement or arrangement.

(2) The person or entity may rely on measures that were previously taken by an agent or mandatary to ascertain the person’s identity if the agent or mandatary was, at the time they took the measures,

(a) acting in their own capacity, whether or not they were required to take the measures under these Regulations; or

(b) acting as an agent or mandatary under a written agreement or arrangement — entered into with another person or entity that is required to take measures to ascertain a person’s identity — for the purposes of ascertaining identity under subsection 64(1).

(3) In order to rely on measures taken by an agent or mandatary under subsection (1) or (2), the person or entity shall

(a) have entered into a written agreement or arrangement with the agent or mandatary for the purposes of ascertaining a person’s identity under subsection 64(1);

(b) obtain from the agent or mandatary all of the information that the agent or mandatary used to ascertain the person’s identity; and

(c) be satisfied that the information is valid and current and that the agent or mandatary ascertained the person’s identity in the manner described in any of paragraphs 64(1)(a) to (d).

64.2 Every person or entity that is required under these Regulations to ascertain a person’s identity in connection with a record that the person or entity has created and is required to keep under these Regulations — or in connection with a transaction that they have carried out and in respect of which they are required to keep a record under these Regulations or under section 12.1 of the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Suspicious Transaction Reporting Regulations — shall set out on or in, or include with, that record the person’s name and the following information:

(a) if the person or entity referred to an identification document under paragraph 64(1)(a), the type of document referred to, its reference number and the issuing authority and, if available, the place it was issued and its expiry date; 

(b) if the person or entity referred to information under paragraph 64(1)(b), the source of the information, the type of information referred to, a reference number associated with the information and the date on which the person or entity verified the information;

(c) if the person or entity referred to information under paragraph 64(1)(c), the source of the information, the reference number associated with the search of the credit file and the date on which the person or entity verified the information;

(d) if the person or entity referred to information under paragraph 64(1)(d), the source of the information, the type of information referred to and the account number contained in it — or if there is no account number contained in it, a reference number associated with the information — and the date on which the person or entity verified the information; or

(e) if the person or entity confirmed under paragraph 64(1)(e) that another entity had previously ascertained the person’s identity, the name   of that entity, the manner in which it previously ascertained the person’s identity under any of paragraphs 64(1)(a) to (d), the applicable information set out in one of paragraphs (a) to (d) of this section that is associated with that manner of ascertaining identity and the date on             which the person or entity verified the information.

Submit comments by September 12, 2015

Comments must be submitted in writing during the comment period, either by email or snail mail:

Snail Mail:

Lisa Pezzack, Director Financial Systems Division,

Financial Sector Policy Branch Department of Finance

90 Elgin Street Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0G5

Email:

fcs-scf@fin.gc.ca

Need a Hand?

At Outlier, we believe that it is important to participate in decisions that affect you and your business.  If you would like someone to look over your submission before you make comments to the Department of Finance, you can get in touch with us free of charge.  We will look over your submission and make suggestions, without any cost to you.  If you need a hand, please feel free to contact us.

 

Return to Blog Listing


PROCESSING...